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Definition
 
enEnglish
Carcinogens definition: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
carcinogen definition: substances that increase the risk of neoplasms; includes genotoxic agents, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic agents, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism.
carcinogen definition: (kar-SIN-o-jin) Any substance that causes cancer.
chemical carcinogen definition: any chemical that increases the risk of neoplasms; includes genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanisms.
Carcinogen definition: Any chemical, biological or physical agents that increase the risk of neoplasms in humans or animals. Carcinogens include natural or synthesized compounds, certain viruses, and various sources of radiation. A carcinogen may directly alter the genetic material of cells (genotoxic), thereby initiating or promoting the process of malignant transformation; it also may induce cancers by mechanisms that do not involve a direct alteration of cellular genetic material (non-genotoxic). (NCI04)
Chemical Carcinogen definition: A chemical compound that is capable of causing cancer in animals and/or in humans after repeated and long duration of exposure.
 
Examples
 

To contribute further to the classification of three CFTR amino acid changes (p.I148T, p.R74W and p.D1270N) either as CF or CBAVD-causing mutations or as neutral variations.

Mireille Claustres et al.

BMC Medical Genetics 5 (7), 02 Aug 2004

Conclusion These findings question p.I148T or p.R74W-p.D1270N as causing by themselves CF or CBAVD and emphazises the necessity to perform a complete scanning of CFTR genes and to assign the parental alleles when novel missense mutations are identified.

Mireille Claustres et al.

BMC Medical Genetics 5 (7), 02 Aug 2004

Because of the mutational heterogeneity and the rarity of many mutations, most clinical DNA laboratories offer tests that aim to detect 75–95 % of CF alleles depending on the ethnic and geographic backgrounds of the population, using available commercial kits motsly including 20 to 31 mutations selected on the basis of their frequency as CF-causing mutations.

Mireille Claustres et al.

BMC Medical Genetics 5 (7), 02 Aug 2004

As of February 2004, about 1200 disease-causing mutations have been identified in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene Frameshift, splice-site, nonsense, and in-frame but nonfunctional deletions (such as p.F508del) are disease-causing mutations.

Mireille Claustres et al.

BMC Medical Genetics 5 (7), 02 Aug 2004

With the start of population screening for CF carriers, new data on the prevalence of some missense mutations have been provided, questioning their involvement as disease-causing mutations.

Mireille Claustres et al.

BMC Medical Genetics 5 (7), 02 Aug 2004

1219 further examples >>
Publications
 

Are p.I148T, p.R74W and p.D1270N cystic fibrosis causing mutations ?

Mireille Claustres et al.

BMC Medical Genetics , 02 Aug 2004

Spectrum of disease-causing mutations in protein secondary structures

Sofia Khan et al.

BMC Structural Biology , 29 Aug 2007

Structural and functional analyses of disease-causing missense mutations in Bloom syndrome protein

Rong-Bing Guo et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 01 Sep 2007

A ganglion cyst at the elbow causing superficial radial nerve compression: a case report

John McFarlane et al.

Journal of Medical Case Reports , 25 Apr 2008

Antral hyperplastic polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction: Case report

Rasim Gencosmanoglu et al.

BMC Gastroenterology , 27 Jun 2003

A Dominant, Recombination-Defective Allele of Dmc1 Causing Male-Specific Sterility

Laura A Bannister et al.

PLoS Biology , 01 May 2007

Determinants and impact of multidrug antibiotic resistance in pathogens causing ventilator-associated-pneumonia

Pieter O Depuydt et al.

Critical Care , 2008

Emergence of unusual species of enterococci causing infections, South India

Vittal P Prakash et al.

BMC Infectious Diseases , 17 Mar 2005

Giant ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp causing small bowel obstruction: a case report and review of the literature

Sagal O Mohamud et al.

Cases Journal , 21 Nov 2008

Simultaneous ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome and adrenal metastasis of a medullary thyroid carcinoma causing paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome

Michael Sand et al.

International Seminars in Surgical Oncology , 02 Jul 2007

1214 further publications >>