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Definition
 
enEnglish
Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic definition: Clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.
Environment, Controlled definition: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
controlled environment definition: state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features; includes control of atmospheric composition.
eIF-2 Kinase definition: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Interferon-Inducible elF2Alpha Kinase definition: Expressed by interferon-induced human PRKR Gene (GCN2 Family), 551-aa 62-kDa Interferon-Inducible elF2Alpha Kinase is a homodimeric serine/threonine protein kinase containing 2 DRBM domains that is activated by double-stranded RNA in the presence of ATP. Binding to dsRNA induces PRKR dimerization and activation, leading to autophosphorylation in the activation loop, PRKR phosphorylation of EIF2-alpha, and inhibition of protein synthesis initiation. P58(IPK) inhibition by P52(rIPK) upregulates PRKR activity. IFNG mRNA activates PRKR through a conserved 5-prime UTR pseudoknot to control its own translation yield. HCV envelope protein E2 contains a sequence identical to phosphorylation sites of PRKR and EIF2-alpha. E2 inhibits PRKR inhibitory activity on protein synthesis and cell growth, which may contribute to HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. (NCI)
Analgesia, Patient-Controlled definition: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
patient-controlled analgesia definition: PCA. A method in which the patient controls the amount of pain medicine that is used. When pain relief is needed, the person can receive a preset dose of pain medicine by pressing a button on a computerized pump that is connected to a small tube in the body.
controlled environment chamber definition: fixed area (room) that is under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features; includes control of atmospheric composition.
Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial definition: A study in which the participants are assigned by chance to separate groups to evaluate treatments. The study also includes a control group, which is undergoing the same rigors of the study with placebo treatment or standard treatment. The trial can also be controlled by the addition of a test group to ensure there are no factors present to skew the results and by the inclusion of peer-review analysis by appropriate government officials. 2005
Vocabulary, Controlled definition: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
9 further definitions >>
deGerman
gehalten definition: [1] gehoben: maßvoll, beherrscht
 
frFrench
photoplan definition: Assemblage de photographies aériennes mises à une échelle moyenne commune, sur canevas de points connus par leurs positions planimétriques et leurs dénivelés.
 
Examples
 

In addition, by investigating influence of hybridization temperature and washing condition on the fluorescence intensity and the discrimination efficiency with and without controlled mesospacing, it was observed that the nanoscale-controlled surface showed good discrimination efficiency in a wide range of temperature (37–50°C), and hybridization behavior on the surface was in agreement with the solution one.

Bong Jin Hong et al.

Nucleic Acids Research 33 (12), 2005

In addition, poorly controlled packing of biomolecules on surface disturbs pristine biomolecular interaction due to severe electrostatic disturbance and/or steric hindrance.

Bong Jin Hong et al.

Nucleic Acids Research 33 (12), 2005

CONCLUSION This nanoscale-controlled surface provided DNA microarrays close to ideal, in which each probe DNA strand was given ample space for the incoming target DNA resulting in far superior SNP discrimination efficiency to that of the DNA microarray on the surface where spacing was poorly controlled.

Bong Jin Hong et al.

Nucleic Acids Research 33 (12), 2005

Nanoscale-controlled spacing provides DNA microarrays with the SNP discrimination efficiency in solution phase Langmuir 2005 21 4257 4261 16032830 20 DeMattei C.R.

Bong Jin Hong et al.

Nucleic Acids Research 33 (12), 2005

A laboratory computer controlled potentiometric titrator interfaced to a diode array spectrophotometer is described.

John D. Stong

The Journal of Automatic Chemistry 10 (2), 1988

4146 further examples >>
Publications
 

Controlled Cardiac Computed Tomography

Erwei Bai et al.

International Journal of Biomedical Imaging , 2006

DNA microarrays on nanoscale-controlled surface

Bong Jin Hong et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 2005

A computer-controlled potentiometric/spectrophotometric titrator

John D. Stong

The Journal of Automatic Chemistry , 1988

The Hawthorne Effect: a randomised, controlled trial

Rob McCarney et al.

BMC Medical Research Methodology , 03 Jul 2007

Toxicologic methods: controlled human exposures.

M J Utell et al.

Environmental Health Perspectives , 01 Aug 2000

A computer-controlled multi-electrode switch

Fernando J. V. Santos et al.

Journal of Automated Methods and Management in Chemistry , 1999

Computer-controlled ion-selective electrode switch

Rui A. S. Lapa et al.

The Journal of Automatic Chemistry , 1991

An assessment of the quality of randomised controlled trials conducted in China

Dalu Zhang et al.

Trials , 24 Apr 2008

Towards properly controlled analytical measurement methods

K. M. Hangos et al.

The Journal of Automatic Chemistry , 1989

Silencing and Un-silencing of Tetracycline-Controlled Genes in Neurons

Peixin Zhu et al.

PLoS ONE , 20 Jun 2007

4141 further publications >>