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Translation
 
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1 word
externalization externalisation
externalization sous-traitance
 
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Definition
 
frFrench
externalisation definition: Fait de se séparer d'une activité faite soi-même, et de faire appel à une société de services spécialisés.
 
enEnglish
externalization definition: Externalisation.
 
Examples
 

Here, we report that mutations of MCD1 and PDS5, two major components of cohesin in budding yeast, cause apoptotic cell death, which is characterized by externalization of phosphatidylserine at cytoplasmic membrane, chromatin condensation and fragmentation, and ROS production.

Qun Ren et al.

Comparative and Functional Genomics 2008 (7), 2008

The inability of ABCA1 knockout mice ( ABCA1 −/− ) to load cholesterol and phospholipids onto apoA1 led to a proposal that ABCA1 mediates the transbilayer externalization of phospholipids, an activity integral not only to the formation of HDL particles but also to another, distinct process: the recognition and clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages.

Patrick Williamson et al.

PLoS ONE 2 (8), 15 Aug 2007

Expression of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the surface of both macrophages and their apoptotic targets is required for efficient engulfment of the apoptotic cells, and it has been proposed that ABCA1 is required for transbilayer externalization of PS to the surface of both cell types.

Patrick Williamson et al.

PLoS ONE 2 (8), 15 Aug 2007

Here, we examine the role of ABCA1 in phospholipid externalization in detail, measuring a wide variety of transbilayer movements in cells from ABCA1 −/− mice and from Tangier individuals as well as ABCA1-expressing HeLa cells, including translocation of phospholipids across the plasma membrane by the aminophospholipid translocase, both spontaneous (basal) and scramblase-mediated movement of PS from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, and the steady-state exposure of PS on the cell surface.

Patrick Williamson et al.

PLoS ONE 2 (8), 15 Aug 2007

ABCA1 could affect phospholipid externalization if it were one of these two enzymes, if it regulated one of these activities, or if it supplemented these activities.

Patrick Williamson et al.

PLoS ONE 2 (8), 15 Aug 2007

6 further examples >>
Publications
 

Global Transcriptional Analysis of Yeast Cell Death Induced by Mutation of Sister Chromatid Cohesin: ... is characterized by externalization of phosphatidylserine ...

Qun Ren et al.

Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2008

Transbilayer Phospholipid Movements in ABCA1-Deficient Cells: ... the transbilayer externalization of phospholipids, an ...

Patrick Williamson et al.

PLoS ONE , 15 Aug 2007

Induction of apoptosis in mammalian cells by cadmium and zinc.: ... cells, cadmium caused externalization of phosphatidylserine, ...

Wim Wätjen et al.

Environmental Health Perspectives , 01 Oct 2002

CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 5mer-induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 leukaemia cells does not require caspase 3 or new protein synthesis: ... phosphatidylserine externalization and collapse of the ...

David M. Tidd et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 01 May 2003

Nuclear interactions of topoisomerase II α and β with phospholipid scramblase 1: ... in phosphatidylserine externalization, PLSCR1 can also be ...

Jessica P. Wyles et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 01 Jun 2007

Deciphering the plasma membrane hallmarks of apoptotic cells: Phosphatidylserine transverse redistribution and calcium entry: ... of phosphatidylserine externalization, without other apparent ...

M Carmen Martínez et al.

BMC Cell Biology , 17 Oct 2001

Nanoelectropulse-driven membrane perturbation and small molecule permeabilization: ... phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Results In this ...

P Thomas Vernier et al.

BMC Cell Biology , 19 Oct 2006

Gene disruption of the DNA topoisomerase IB small subunit induces a non-viable phenotype in the hemoflagellate Leishmania major: ... on phosphatidylserine externalization show a poor incidence ...

Rafael Balaña-Fouce et al.

BMC Microbiology , 08 Jul 2008

Induction of apoptosis in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes by the anticancer drug CI-994 (acetyldinaline): ... fragmentation, and/or externalization of phosphatidyl serine ...

Michael J Graziano et al.

Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2001

Removal of spermatozoa with externalized phosphatidylserine from sperm preparation in human assisted medical procreation: effects on viability, motility and mitochondrial membrane potential: Background Externalization of phosphatidylserine ...

Corinne de Vantéry Arrighi et al.

Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB&E , 08 Jan 2009

1 further publication >>