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1 word
hydrochloride Chlorhydrat
enEnglish esSpanish
1 word
hydrochloride clorhidrato
enEnglish fiFinnish
1 word
hydrochloride hydrokloridi
enEnglish frFrench
1 word
hydrochloride chlorhydrate
enEnglish itItalian
1 word
hydrochloride cloridrato
hydrochloride idrocloruro
enEnglish ptPortuguese
1 word
hydrochloride cloridrato
Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride definition: A centrally acting muscle relaxant, chemically similar to amitriptyline hydrochloride with antidepressant activity. The exact mechanism of action of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride has not been fully determined. However, it primarily acts at the brain stem to reduce tonic somatic motor activity, influencing both gamma and alpha motor neurons. This leads to a reduction in muscle spasms.
doxorubicin hydrochloride definition: The hydrochloride salt of doxorubicin, an anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the fungus Streptococcus peucetius var. caesius. Doxorubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent also produces toxic free-radical intermediates and interacts with cell membrane lipids causing lipid peroxidation. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38860&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38860&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C1326" NCI Thesaurus)
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride definition: The hydrochloride salt of doxorubicin, an anthracycline antibiotic with antineoplastic activity. Doxorubicin, isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius, is the hydroxylated congener of daunorubicin. Doxorubicin intercalates between base pairs in the DNA helix, thereby preventing DNA replication and ultimately inhibiting protein synthesis. Additionally, doxorubicin inhibits topoisomerase II which results in an increased and stabilized cleavable enzyme-DNA linked complex during DNA replication and subsequently prevents the ligation of the nucleotide strand after double-strand breakage. Doxorubicin also forms oxygen free radicals resulting in cytotoxicity secondary to lipid peroxidation of cell membrane lipids; the formation of oxygen free radicals also contributes to the toxicity of the anthracycline antibiotics, namely the cardiac and cutaneous vascular effects.
Procyclidine Hydrochloride definition: The hydrochloride salt form of procyclidine, with anticholinergic properties. Procyclidine hydrochloride competitively binds to striatal cholinergic receptors, thereby diminishing acetylcholine activity and ultimately reducing the frequency and severity of akinesia, rigidity, and tremor associated with uncontrollable body movements. In addition, this agent may block the re-uptake of dopamine by nerve terminals, thereby increasing dopamine activity.
Verapamil Hydrochloride definition: The hydrochloride form of Verapamil, which is a phenylalkylamine calcium channel blocking agent. Verapamil inhibits the transmembrane influx of extracellular calcium ions into myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cells, causing dilatation of the main coronary and systemic arteries and decreasing myocardial contractility. This agent also inhibits the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein which is overexpressed in some multi-drug resistant tumors and may improve the efficacy of some antineoplastic agents. (NCI04)
Metformin Hydrochloride definition: The hydrochloride salt of the biguanide metformin with antihyperglycemic activity. Metformin decreases hepatic gluconeogenesis and intestinal absorption of glucose. This agent also increases the number and/or affinity of insulin receptors on muscle and adipose cells, increasing the sensitivity to insulin at receptor and post-receptor binding sites and increasing glucose uptake peripherally.
Levalbuterol Hydrochloride definition: The hydrochloride salt form of levalbuterol, a relatively selective sympathomimetic beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist with bronchodilator activity. Levalbuterol hydrochloride binds to beta-2 adrenergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle and activates intracellular adenyl cyclase, thereby increasing the production of cyclic-3', 5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Increased cAMP levels lead to the activation of protein kinase A, which inhibits the phosphorylation of myosin and lowers intracellular ionic calcium concentrations, resulting in relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles. The increased cyclic AMP concentrations also inhibit the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells.
Hydrochloride Salt definition: A salt that is comprised of a hydrogen and chloride ion that can be linked to a base form of a drug making it water-soluble. (NCI)
o-Anisidine Hydrochloride definition: A pink to yellow colored, liquid, aromatic amine with an amine-like odor that emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxide when heated to decomposition. o-Anisidine hydrochloride is used in industry as a chemical intermediate in the production of dyes and pharmaceuticals. Exposure to this substance irritates the skin and can cause headaches, vertigo, and affects the blood. o-Anisidine hydrochloride is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
idrocloruro definition: [1] das Hydrochlorid
cloridrato definition: [1] das Hydrochlorid

Uncertainty in the estimation of benzene risks: application of an uncertainty taxonomy to risk assessments based on an epidemiology study of rubber hydrochloride workers.

D M Byrd et al.

Environmental Health Perspectives , 01 Jul 1989

Modification of the carcinogenic process in colorectal cancer by endogenous and exogenous factors: effect of colestipol hydrochloride on tumors induced by dimethylhydrazine.

J P Daugherty

Environmental Health Perspectives , 01 Apr 1983

Inhibition of Angiogenic Factor Production from Murine Mast Cells by an Antiallergic Agent (Epinastine Hydrochloride) In Vitro

K. Asano et al.

Mediators of Inflammation , 2008

Reproductive toxicology. Methylphenidate hydrochloride.


Environmental Health Perspectives , 01 Feb 1997

Reproductive toxicology. 9-Aminoacridine hydrochloride.


Environmental Health Perspectives , 01 Feb 1997

Convulsive liability of bupropion hydrochloride metabolites in Swiss albino mice

Peter H Silverstone et al.

Annals of General Psychiatry , 15 Oct 2008

Effect of increasing intraperitoneal infusion rates on bupropion hydrochloride-induced seizures in mice

Peter H Silverstone et al.

Annals of General Psychiatry , 23 Dec 2008

Alcohol significantly lowers the seizure threshold in mice when co-administered with bupropion hydrochloride

Peter H Silverstone et al.

Annals of General Psychiatry , 18 Aug 2008

Selective O-phosphitilation with nucleoside phosphoramidite reagents.: ... to tetrazole, pyridine hydrochloride/imidazole converts ...

S M Gryaznov et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 25 Apr 1992

A simple hepatic cyst with elevated serum and cyst fluid CA19-9 levels: a case report: ... of minocycline hydrochloride. Case presentation ...

Hidekatsu Yanai et al.

Journal of Medical Case Reports , 14 Oct 2008

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