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Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2C definition: Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2C, encoded by the CDKN2C gene, is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been shown to interact with monomeric CDK4 or CDK6, and prevent the activation of the CDK kinases, thus control cell cycle G1 progression. It inhibits cell growth and proliferation with a correlated dependence on endogenous retinoblastoma protein Rb. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encode an identical protein. This protein contains 4 ANK repeats and is found in pancreas and heart, with the highest levels in skeletal muscle. Inactivation of CDKN2C by point mutations may contribute to deregulated growth control in certain cell lines and/or tumors. (From LocusLink, Swiss-Prot and NCI)
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18 definition: An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing five ANKYRIN-LIKE REPEATS. Aberrant expression of this protein has been associated with deregulated EPITHELIAL CELL growth, organ enlargement, and a variety of NEOPLASMS.
Genes, p16 definition: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
CDKN2A Gene definition: This gene functions as a tumor suppressor and transcriptional regulator.
CDKN2B Gene definition: This gene is involved in cell cycle regulation and arrest.
CDKN2C Gene definition: This gene is involved in cell cycle inhibition and regulation.
CSK Protein Kinase Activation Pathway definition: Interaction of T cell receptor with specific antigen in the context of MHC II activates a signal transduction pathway that leads to T cell activation. In the T cell receptor signaling pathway, the src family kinases Lck and Fyn are activated to phosphorylate proteins in the T cell receptor complex which recruit and activate the ZAP70 kinase. The activation of ZAP70 phosphorylates downstream targets that activate MAP kinase pathways and cause T cell activation. The CD45 phosphorylase also plays a role in T cell receptor signaling, dephosphorylated Lck and Fyn to activate them. Other factors modulate T cell receptor activation. Csk (COOH-terminal Srk kinase) phosphorylates Lck and deactivates it, opposing the action of CD45. The phosphorylation of Lck by Csk inhibits T cell receptor signaling and inhibits T cell activation. Csk activity is regulated in T cells by PKA, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase activated by the second messenger cAMP. The activity of Csk also appears to depend on other factors such as CBP, which recruits Csk to the plasma membrane in lipid rafts where other signaling factors such the T cell receptor complex are localized. CBP also directly activates Csk. (BioCarta)
Ribosomal Biogenesis Pathway definition: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-2A (CDKN2A) goes by the colloquial designation p16, which is sometimes referred to as p16(INK4). The alpha transcript of CDKN2A has been shown to encode p16(INK4a), a recognized tumor suppressor that induces a G1 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting the phosphorylation of the RB protein by the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. The beta transcript of CDKN2A encodes p14(ARF). The predicted 132-amino acid p14(ARF) is shorter than the corresponding mouse protein, p19(ARF), and the 2 proteins share only 50% identity. However, both proteins have the ability to elicit a p53 response, manifest in the increased expression of both CDKN1A and MDM2, and resulting in a distinctive cell cycle arrest in both the G1 and G2/M phases. Two unrelated proteins encoded by the INK4A-ARF locus function in tumor suppression. ARF binds to MDM2 and promotes the rapid degradation of MDM2. This interaction is mediated by the E1-beta-encoded N-terminal domain of ARF and a C-terminal region of MDM2. ARF-promoted MDM2 degradation is associated with MDM2 modification and concurrent p53 stabilization and accumulation. The p19(Arf) tumor suppressor inhibits production of ribosomal RNA, retarding processing of 47/45S and 32S precursors. These effects correlate with but do not strictly depend upon inhibition of rRNA biosynthesis or cell cycle arrest, are not mimicked by p53, and require neither p53 nor Mdm2. Arf mutants lacking conserved amino acid residues 2-14 do not block rRNA synthesis and processing or inhibit cell proliferation. Evolution may have linked a primordial nucleolar Arf function to Mdm2 and p53, creating a more efficient checkpoint-signaling pathway for coordinating ribosomal biogenesis and cell cycle progression. (BioCarta)
CDKN2C wt Allele definition: Human CDKN2C wild-type allele is located within 1p32 and is approximately 14 kb in length. This allele, which encodes cyclin-dependent kinase 6 inhibitor protein, is involved in cellular growth regulation and progression from the G1 phase of the cell cycle.

Calreticulin inhibits adipogenesis via a negative feedback mechanism whereby the expression of calreticulin is initially up-regulated by peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ (PPARγ).

Eva Szabo et al.

The Journal of Cell Biology 182 (1), 14 Jul 2008

Thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the sarco/ER Ca 2+ -ATPase, inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes ( Ntambi and Takova, 1996 ; Shi et al., 2000 ), suggesting a role for ER stores and ER Ca 2+ -binding proteins in the modulation of adipogenesis.

Eva Szabo et al.

The Journal of Cell Biology 182 (1), 14 Jul 2008

Calreticulin, PPARγ2, and C/EBPα levels increase over the 20-d differentiation time line, whereas overexpression of calreticulin inhibits adipogenesis. (A–C) Calreticulin (CRT), PPARγ2, and C/EBPα expression was examined in WT and G45 crt −/− cells by Western blotting over 20 d of adipocyte differentiation as described in Materials and methods.

Eva Szabo et al.

The Journal of Cell Biology 182 (1), 14 Jul 2008

In WT cells, chelating cytoplasmic [Ca 2+ ] enhances adipogenesis, and, conversely, increasing cytoplasmic [Ca 2+ ] inhibits adipogenesis.

Eva Szabo et al.

The Journal of Cell Biology 182 (1), 14 Jul 2008

Thus, we propose that although the calcineurin pathway inhibits adipogenesis, the Ca 2+ -independent CaMKII pathway might be responsible for the promotion of adipogenesis in the absence of calreticulin observed here.

Eva Szabo et al.

The Journal of Cell Biology 182 (1), 14 Jul 2008

1284 further examples >>

Calreticulin inhibits commitment to adipocyte differentiation

Eva Szabo et al.

The Journal of Cell Biology , 14 Jul 2008

The tripeptide feG inhibits leukocyte adhesion

Ronald D Mathison et al.

Journal of Inflammation (London, England) , 20 May 2008

CTLA-4 Engagement Inhibits Th2 but not Th1 Cell Polarisation

Vanessa Ubaldi et al.

Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 01 Mar 2003

Methamphetamine Inhibits Antigen Processing, Presentation, and Phagocytosis

Zsolt Tallóczy et al.

PLoS Pathogens , 01 Feb 2008

Low molecular weight thymic factor inhibits histamine release from basophils

S. I. Yalkut et al.

Mediators of Inflammation , 1993

CpG methylation inhibits proenkephalin gene expression and binding of the transcription factor AP-2.

M Comb et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 11 Jul 1990

Calreticulin inhibits vitamin D3 signal transduction.

D G Wheeler et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 25 Aug 1995

Bcl-XL Inhibits Membrane Permeabilization by Competing with Bax

Lieven P Billen et al.

PLoS Biology , 01 Jun 2008

Heparin inhibits EcoRI endonuclease cleavage of DNA at certain EcoRI sites.

J Z Chen et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 11 Jun 1990

The fragile X mental retardation protein inhibits translation via interacting with mRNA

Zhenzhong Li et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 01 Jun 2001

1279 further publications >>