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Ionophores definition: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
ionophore definition: molecule that allows ions to cross lipid bilayers; there are two classes: carriers and channels; carriers, like valinomycin, form cage like structures around specific ions, diffusing freely through the hydrophobic regions of the bilayer; channels, like gramicidin, form continuous aqueous pores through the bilayer, allowing ions to diffuse through.
Lasalocid definition: Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.
Valinomycin definition: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Valinomycin definition: A cyclic depsipeptide isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces fulvissimus. As a potassium-specific ionophore, mould element causes loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, thereby initiating cellular apoptosis. (NCI04)
Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate definition: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
NMDA receptor definition: subtype of glutamate receptor to which the synthetic aminoacid NMDA is an agonist; effectors are ligand- and voltage-gated calcium channel domains or subunits; important in excitotoxicity and neural plasticity.
Ionophore Activity definition: Ionophore Activity involves the functions of molecules that form a transmembrane channel, or act as a transmembrane carrier, and increase the ionic permeability of cell membranes.
channel-forming ionophore activity definition: Enables transport of a solute across a membrane. This kind of transporter interacts much more weakly with the solute than the carrier does. It is an aqueous pore that extends across the membrane. It may change from closed to open and back. It transports faster than a carrier. It is always passive. [GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]

Calcium ionophore (A-23187) induced peritoneal eicosanoid biosynthesis: a rapid method to evaluate inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism in vivo

T. S. Rao et al.

Mediators of Inflammation , 1993

Effect of E1A and E1B viral proteins on the expression of a calcium ionophore-inducible gene and its promoter.

A Y Lin et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 25 Jun 1986

Identification of genes involved in Ca 2+ ionophore A23187-mediated apoptosis and demonstration of a high susceptibility for transcriptional repression of cell cycle genes in B lymphoblasts from a patient with Scott syndrome

Detlef Kozian et al.

BMC Genomics , 21 Oct 2005

Inhibitory effect of LY 255283 on the synthesis of leukotriene B 4 and thromboxane A 2 in human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes: ... activated by calcium ionophore A23187. In human ...

M. Uğur et al.

Mediators of Inflammation , 1993

Design and Synthesis of Redox-Switched Lariat Ethers and Their Application for Transport of Alkali and Alkaline-Earth Metal Cations Across Supported Liquid Membrane: ... analysis. These ionophores were used in liquid ...

Anubhuti Awasthy et al.

Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications , 2006

Impact of salinomycin on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens: ... near future the use of ionophore coccidiostats may be ...

Charlotte H Johansen et al.

Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 26 Oct 2007

Transcriptional stimulation by CaPO4-DNA precipitates.: ... but the calcium ionophore A23187 stimulates only ...

R Pine et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 25 Feb 1988

Interleukin-5 Potentiates Sulfidopeptide Leukotriene Production by Human Eosinophils: ... (STZ) or the calcium ionophore A23187 by 69% and 135%, ...

A. J. M. Van Oosterhout et al.

Mediators of Inflammation , 1994

Structure-activity correlations for interactions of bicyclophosphorus esters and some polychlorocycloalkane and pyrethroid insecticides with the brain-specific t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate receptor.: ... acid (GABA) receptor-ionophore complex whereas the ...

J E Casida et al.

Environmental Health Perspectives , 01 Sep 1985

Human keratinocyte sensitivity towards inflammatory cytokines varies with culture time: ... (AA) and the calcium ionophore A23187 stimulated PGE 2 ...

G. Elliott et al.

Mediators of Inflammation , 1992

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