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Ionophores ionophore
 
Definition
 
enEnglish
Ionophores definition: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
ionophore definition: molecule that allows ions to cross lipid bilayers; there are two classes: carriers and channels; carriers, like valinomycin, form cage like structures around specific ions, diffusing freely through the hydrophobic regions of the bilayer; channels, like gramicidin, form continuous aqueous pores through the bilayer, allowing ions to diffuse through.
 
Examples
 

We have synthesized ionophores ( M 1 – M 6 ) as shown in scheme 1 .

Anubhuti Awasthy et al.

Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications 2006 (7), 2006

In T lymphoma cells, the activity of the Il-4 promoter/enhancer is stimulated by phorbol esters, Ca++ ionophores and agonists of protein kinase A and inhibited by low doses of the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A.

S Chuvpilo et al.

Nucleic Acids Research 21 (24), 11 Dec 1993

The veterinary drugs represent different classes including benzimidazoles, macrolides, penicillins, quinolones, sulphonamides, pyrimidines, tetracylines, nitroimidazoles, tranquillizers, ionophores, amphenicols and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs).

A. A.M. Stolker et al.

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 391 (6), 01 Jul 2008

The nitroimidazoles and ionophores are frequently used as feed additives for the treatment and prevention of certain bacterial and protozoal diseases.

A. A.M. Stolker et al.

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 391 (6), 01 Jul 2008

Characteristics and validation results obtained for the studied 101 veterinary drugs in milk (concentration 1 × VL) Compound Rt (min) [M+H] + ( m / z ) Δppm a MRL VL b (μg/l) Intra-day %RSD Inter-day %RSD Acc. (%) CC β Benzimidazoles   Albendazole 4.72 266.0963 0.0 100 50 6.1 9.1 99 64.9   Albendazole sulfoxide 3.23 282.0912 4.6 100 50 7.0 7.8 90 61.5   Albendazole sulfone 3.78 298.0862 −3.7 100 50 5.8 6.6 99 60.8   Albendazole aminosulfone 2.46 240.0807 −2.9 100 50 5.5 5.9 113 61.0   Fenbendazole 5.64 300.0806 11.7 10 10 3.1 7.1 112 12.6   Oxfendazole 3.94 316.0756 4.7 10 10 3.4 5.3 108 11.9   Oxfendazole sulfone 4.65 332.0705 5.4 10 10 3.9 7.3 106 12.5   Mebendazole 4.71 296.1035 19.9 – c 2 5.6 9.4 108 2.7   Aminomebendazole 3.6 238.0980 9.2 – 2 8.2 9.5 100 2.6   Hydroxymebendazole 3.61 298.1192 2.3 – 2 7.7 7.7 100 2.5   Levamisole 2.31 205.0799 2.4 – 2 7.5 19.9 133 3.7   Thiabendazole 2.48 202.0439 −12.4 100 50 7.2 8.8 168 74.2   5-Hydroxythiabendazole 2.32 218.0388 −4.6 100 50 10.6 11.4 139 76.1   Flubendazole 4.98 314.0941 6.7 – 2 5.6 8.1 102 2.5   Aminoflubendazole 3.8 256.0886 10.2 – 2 5.3 8.5 105 2.6   Hydroxyflubendazole 3.84 316.1097 −4.4 – 2 6.7 11.2 99 2.7   Oxibendazole 3.9 250.1191 −2.0 – 2 6.3 6.7 110 2.5 Macrolides   Erythromycin 5.06 734.4690 0.8 40 40 3.9 8.6 100 51.3   Spiramycin 4.08 843.5218 d −5.5 200 50 4..4 7.6 116 64.4   Tilmicosin 4.68 869.5738 d −4.4 50 50 3.9 5.7 104 59.7   Tylosin 5.40 916.5270 −5.1 50 50 3.7 7.3 113 63.5   Josamycin 6.14 828.4745 3.6 – 50 5.5 9.2 109 66.4   Tiamulin 5.45 494.3304 4.2 – 50 5.2 6.4 112 61.8   Valnemulin 6.01 565.3675 14.3 – 50 6.1 9.9 112 68.2   Lincomycine 2.59 407.2216 2.7 150 50 20 32.5 157 134   Pirlimycine 3.93 411.1720 1.2 100 50 17.3 18.7 104 81.9   Tulatromycine 3.4 806.5742 d −7.4 – 50 14.4 19.7 106 84.2 Penicillins   Penicillin V 5.38 351.1014 19.4 – 25 9.0 13.3 108 36.8   Ampicillin 2.79 350.1174 13.4 4 25 29.8 33.8 124 59.3   Oxacillin 5.67 402.1123 0.2 30 30 7.4 10.9 108 41.6   Nafcillin 6.29 415.1327 −1.4 30 30 34.0 34.8 76 56.0   Cloxacillin 6.05 436.0734 24.5 30 30 18.4 25.0 112 57.5   Dicloxacillin 6.53 470.0330 5.5 30 30 6.7 8.6 105 38.9 Quinolones   Nalidixic acid 4.71 233.0926 7.7 – 2 6.7 11.3 104 2.8   Oxolinic acid 3.99 262.0715 6.1 – 2 5.5 5.7 104 2.4   Flumequine 4.99 262.0879 -3.8 50 50 3.2 11.1 101 68.3   Norfloxacin 2.92 320.1410 3.1 – 25 10.9 15.0 121 39.9   Ciprofloxacin 3 332.1410 6.6 – 5 11.2 12.7 103 7.1   Lomefloxacin 3.11 352.1472 4.0 – 5 7.5 13.7 102 7.3   Enrofloxacin 3.22 360.1723 −4.7 100 50 26.3 27.2 102 95.5   Marbofloxacin 2.79 363.1468 0.8 75 50 9.3 14 113 75.9   Difloxacin 3.46 400.1472 3.7 – 2 7.0 8.1 102 2.5   Danofloxacin 3.15 358.1567 5.0 30 30 7.3 7.8 121 39.2   Sarafloxacin 3.42 386.1316 6.7 – 5 7.6 12.0 102 7.0 Sulphonamides   Dapsone 3.01 249.0697 2.0 5 e 5 11.9 19.7 113 8.7   Sulphadiazine 2.02 251.0602 1.6 100 50 6.3 6.6 91 59.9   Sulphamethoxazole 3.42 254.0599 2.0 100 50 6.9 7.9 119 65.4   Sulphamethazine 2.85 279.0915 −4.7 100 50 4.5 11.7 102 69.6   Sulphadimethoxine, 3.53 311.0814 7.1 100 50 6.1 9.6 102 66.1   Sulphadoxine 4.24 311.0814 −1.0 100 50 4.9 7.9 101 63.0   Sulphaquinoxaline 4.32 301.0759 −2.3 100 50 5.5 5.7 108 60.0   Sulphachloropyridazine 3.22 285.0213 8.4 100 50 6.9 7.1 106 62.3   Sulphamerazine 2.47 265.0759 1.1 100 50 5.9 9.0 113 66.7   Sulphamethizole 2.89 271.0323 0.0 100 50 4.4 6.1 87 58.7   Sulphamethoxypyridazine 2.96 281.0708 1.1 100 50 6.4 6.4 112 61.7   Sulphamonomethoxine 3.22 281.0708 0.7 100 50 4.1 6.9 110 62.5   Sulphamoxole 3.69 268.0756 5.6 100 50 6.6 10.3 90 65.2   Sulphapyridine 2.38 250.0650 4.8 100 50 7.1 11.9 112 71.9   Sulphisoxazole 2.84 268.0756 2.2 100 50 32 f 36.0 f 107 113   Sulphathiazole 2.31 256.0214 3.5 100 50 5.3 11.0 107 69.3 Pyrimidines   Trimethoprim 2.77 291.1457 3.3 50 25 9.3 14.4 111 38.1 Tetracyclines   Tetracycline 3.04 445.1611 2.9 100 100 8.0 11.1 82 130   Doxycycline 4.05 445.1611 3.8 – 100 9.8 10.2 90 130   Oxytetracycline 2.82 461.1560 −1.1 100 100 7.4 12.1 92 136   Chlorotetracycline 3.77 479.1221 −0.6 100 100 5.1 15.9 80 142 Nitroimidazoles   Ipronidazole 3.31 170.0930 0.6 – 5 30.4 39.6 186 17.1   Hydroxyipronidazole 2.85 186.0879 3.8 – 5 14.0 14.5 114 7.7 Tranquillizers   Azaperol 2.83 330.1982 0.0 – 1 6.8 10.2 116 1.4   Azaperone 3.11 328.1825 4.3 – 1 7.7 12.3 102 1.4   Propionylpromazine 5.59 341.1688 14.1 – 1 54 f 58 f 98 2.9   Acetopromazine 5.06 327.1531 5.5 – 1 26 f 26 f 97 1.8   Xylazine 3.22 221.1112 −1.4 – 1 6.4 12.0 101 1.4   Haloperidol 4.92 376.1480 6.1 – 1 4.8 6.3 96 1.2   Chloropromazine 5.75 319.1036 4.4 – 2 ND g ND ND ND   Carazolol 3.94 299.1760 4.7 – 1 6.7 7.0 112 1.3 NSAIDs   Piroxycam 4.92 332.0705 3.3 – 50 8.7 9.5 112 67.4   Propyphenazone 5.09 231.1497 −7.4 – 20 2.8 7.0 105 24.8   Indoprofen 5.52 282.1130 13.5 – 20 10.5 10.8 107 27.6   Tolmetin 5.93 258.1130 25.6 – 50 13.2 13.7 115 75.9   Ketoprofen 6.09 255.1021 32.5 – 50 12.5 13.9 120 77.3   Naproxen 6.12 231.1021 10.4 10 e 50 12.7 13.8 114 75.8   Fenbufen 6.39 255.1021 13.7 – 50 8.9 9.4 106 66.3   Carprofen 6.75 274.0635 12.8 – 50 14.1 14.6 104 75.0   Diclofenac 6.82 296.0250 10.8 5 e 50 8.8 9.2 105 65.8   Niflumic acid 6.66 283.0694 12.4 – 50 5.0 9.0 102 65.0   Phenylbutazone 6.91 309.1603 6.8 5 e 25 48.8 f 55.0 f 135 85.9   Flufenamic acid 7.02 282.0742 5.0 – 50 11.8 14.5 87 70.8   Mefenamic acid 7.03 242.1181 −8.3 10 e 50 14.1 15.4 97 74.6   Meclofenamic acid 7.04 296.0250 11.8 – 50 16.9 23.9 81 81.8   Isopyrin 2.59 246.1606 0.0 – 50 33.0 f 34.0 f 119 116   Isoxicam 6.34 336.0654 6.2 – 50 4.8 5.0 114 59.4   Tenoxicam 3.91 338.0269 5.3 – 50 9.5 11.7 107 70.5   Sulindac 5.78 357.0961 5.3 – 50 11.7 12.6 111 73.0   Indomethacin 6.85 358.0846 3.1 – 50 27.3 35.5 86 100   Flunixin 5.65 297.0851 6.1 50 50 3.7 6.5 99 60.6 Ionophores   Monensin Na 7.84 693.4190 −3.7 2 1 16.0 27.3 119 2.1   Salinomycine Na 7.91 773.4816 −10.9 – 1 56.2 f 57.5 f 97 3.6   Narasin Na 8.05 787.4972 −7.5 – 1 26.9 f 27.3 f 93 1.9   Maduramycine Na 8.07 934.5739 −14.2 – 1 9.4 20.2 100 1.7 Amphenicols   Florphenicol NH 4 3.52 358.0083 15.4 – 5 26.9 28.5 122 10.7   Thiamphenicol NH 4 2.76 356.0126 −0.3 50 50 12.1 15.1 115 78.5 a Δppm   differences between theoretical exact mass and measured mass

A. A.M. Stolker et al.

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 391 (6), 01 Jul 2008

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