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Translation
 
enEnglish deGerman
1 word
ligand Bindungsprotein
ligand Ligand
 
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enEnglish frFrench
1 word
ligand ligand
 
enEnglish ruRussian
1 word
ligand лиганд
 
frFrench enEnglish
1 word
ligand ligand
 
frFrench deGerman
1 word
ligand Ligand
 
frFrench ruRussian
1 word
ligand лиганд
 
deGerman enEnglish
1 word
Ligand ligand
 
deGerman frFrench
1 word
Ligand ligand
 
deGerman ruRussian
1 word
Ligand лиганд
 
Definition
 
enEnglish
Intercalating Agents definition: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
Ligands definition: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
ligand definition: molecule that binds to another molecule, especially a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule.
Thrombopoietin definition: A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.
thrombopoietin definition: A colony-stimulating factor that stimulates the production of blood cells, especially platelets, during chemotherapy. It is a cytokine that belongs to the family of drugs called hematopoietic (blood forming) agents.
Thrombopoietin definition: Thrombopoietin is a lineage-restricted, glycoprotein growth factor ligand for the MPL receptor with selective action on megakaryopoiesis and platelet production. THPO has little direct effect on erythroid progenitor cells but may enhance erythropoiesis indirectly by preventing early erythroid progenitor cells from undergoing apoptotic cell death. (from OMIM 600044 and NCI)
Antigens, CD11a definition: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
Integrin Alpha-L definition: Integrin alpha-L (1170 aa, 129 kD) is a cell motility process protein that is encoded by the human ITGAL gene and has a role in cell motility.
Integrin Alpha-L definition: Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling. (from LocusLink)
Antigens, CD58 definition: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
42 further definitions >>
deGerman
Ligand definition: [1] (Komplexchemie:) Teil eines Komplexes [2] (Biochemie:) chemischer Sotff, der an ein bestimmtes Enzym, etwa an einen Rezeptor binden kann.
 
frFrench
ligand definition: Atome ou groupe d’atomes lié à un atome central, généralement métallique, dans une entité moléculaire polyatomique.
 
Examples
 

Methods and resources for obtaining chemically plausible starting models and restraint sets for refinement of ligand complexes are described and some of the potential pitfalls are discussed.

Gerard J. Kleywegt

Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography 63 (Pt 1), 01 Jan 2007

A number of programs, servers, databases and other resources that can be of assistance in the process are also discussed. refinement model building ligand complexes restraint sets macromolecular crystallography Crystallography of complexes 1.

Gerard J. Kleywegt

Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography 63 (Pt 1), 01 Jan 2007

In addition, as the examples below show, compounds (known and unknown) may undergo chemical reactions, ‘known’ compounds may turn out to be something completely different and sometimes a putative ligand simply does not bind or binds with too low an occupancy to give a clear feature in the electron density.

Gerard J. Kleywegt

Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography 63 (Pt 1), 01 Jan 2007

Depending on the nature of the small molecule and the environment inside the protein, a ligand may be reduced or oxidized ( e.g. sulfur- or metal-containing compounds), it may form dimers ( e.g. β-mercaptoethanol may dimerize to form 2-­hydroxyethyldisulfide), it may turn out to be an unexpected substrate or it may react with the protein or other components present in the crystal.

Gerard J. Kleywegt

Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography 63 (Pt 1), 01 Jan 2007

An interesting example of an unexpected reaction taking place in a crystal (albeit with an unusual amino acid rather than a ligand) was encountered in the structure determination of a methanogen methyltransferase, the first known protein to contain a copy of the 22nd naturally occurring amino acid, l -pyrrolysine (Hao et al. , 2002 ▶ ).

Gerard J. Kleywegt

Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography 63 (Pt 1), 01 Jan 2007

1531 further examples >>
Publications
 

Crystallographic refinement of ligand complexes

Gerard J. Kleywegt

Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography , 01 Jan 2007

Crystallization of protein–ligand complexes

Anne M. Hassell et al.

Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography , 01 Jan 2007

PDB-Ligand: a ligand database based on PDB for the automated and customized classification of ligand-binding structures

Jae-Min Shin et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 01 Jan 2005

LIGAND: chemical database of enzyme reactions

Susumu Goto et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 01 Jan 2000

LIGAND database for enzymes, compounds and reactions.

S Goto et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 01 Jan 1999

Posttranslational regulation of Fas ligand function

Matthias Voss et al.

Cell Communication and Signaling : CCS , 29 Dec 2008

Ligand recognition determinants of guanine riboswitches

Jérôme Mulhbacher et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 01 Aug 2007

Assessment of automatic ligand building in ARP / wARP

Guillaume X. Evrard et al.

Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography , 01 Jan 2007

The Ligand Gated Ion Channel Database.

N Le Novère et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 01 Jan 1999

LIGAND: database of chemical compounds and reactions in biological pathways

Susumu Goto et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 01 Jan 2002

1526 further publications >>