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Definition
 
enEnglish
Biological Markers definition: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
biomarker definition: a biological, physiological, behavioral, or molecular indicator of a process, disease, or system; e.g., fish mortality and pollution, behavioral changes and alcoholism, neuroendocrine system changes and aging.
marker definition: A diagnostic indication that disease may develop.
Biomarker definition: A characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. (From: FDA Guidance for Industry: Pharmacogenomic Data Submissions.)
Biomarker definition: A variation in cellular or biochemical components or processes, structures, or functions that is objectively measurable in a biological system and that characterizes normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, an organism's state of health or disease, likelihood of developing a disease, prognosis, or response to a particular therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers include but not limited to such phenotypic parameters as specific enzyme or hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype, presence or absence of biological substances.
Cloning, Molecular definition: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
molecular cloning definition: reproduction of artificial, foreign, or hybrid nucleic acids by incorporation into living cells (usually bacteria), cell-free biological systems, or artificial replicative systems such as PCR.
genetic disorder definition: general term for any disorder caused by a genetic mechanism, comprising chromosome aberrations or anomalies, mendelian or monogenic or single-gene disorders, and multifactorial disorders; note that all genetic disorders are not treed under this term; see RTs for others; in addition, many disorders not treed here or under RTs may have a genetic component.
Genetic Disorder definition: Genetic Diseases are diseases in which inherited genes predispose to increased risk. The genetic disorders associated with cancer often result from an alteration or mutation in a single gene. The diseases range from rare dominant cancer family syndrome to familial tendencies in which low-penetrance genes may interact with other genes or environmental factors to induce cancer. Research may involve clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory studies of persons, families, and populations at high risk of these disorders.
Hereditary Diseases definition: Diseases caused by genetic mutations that are inherited from a parent's genome.
52 further definitions >>
deGerman
molekular definition: [1] Chemie: die Moleküle betreffend oder auf der Ebene der Moleküle
 
Examples
 

Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology

Julian L. Leibowitz

Emerging Infectious Diseases 14 (4), 01 Apr 2008

Coronaviruses: molecular and cellular biology [book review].

Julian L. Leibowitz

Emerging Infectious Diseases 14 (4), 01 Apr 2008

An outline is given of the basic features of the molecular-replacement method for solving crystal structures.

Philip Evans et al.

Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography 64 (Pt 1), 01 Jan 2008

Molecular replacement is fundamentally a simple trial-and-error method of solving crystal structures when a suitable related model is available.

Philip Evans et al.

Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography 64 (Pt 1), 01 Jan 2008

This introduction sketches the essential issues in molecular replacement without going into technical details.

Philip Evans et al.

Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography 64 (Pt 1), 01 Jan 2008

9122 further examples >>
Publications
 

Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology

Julian L. Leibowitz

Emerging Infectious Diseases , 01 Apr 2008

An introduction to molecular replacement

Philip Evans et al.

Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography , 01 Jan 2008

Sequence alignment for molecular replacement

Geoffrey J. Barton

Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography , 01 Jan 2008

The befores and afters of molecular replacement

Eleanor Dodson

Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography , 01 Jan 2008

Human molecular chronotyping in sight?

Urs Albrecht

Genome Biology , 2004

Molecular helminthology in the Rockies

Mark Blaxter

Genome Biology , 2005

A molecular map of mesenchymal tumors

Stephen R Henderson et al.

Genome Biology , 2005

Cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis

S. L. Wolters et al.

European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging , 01 Jun 2007

Welcome to Molecular Brain

Lin Mei et al.

Molecular Brain , 17 Jun 2008

Molecular Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in the Amazon

David A Haake

PLoS Medicine , 01 Aug 2006

9117 further publications >>