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Translation
 
enEnglish deGerman
1 word
ribosome Ribosom
 
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enEnglish ltLithuanian
1 word
ribosome ribosoma
 
Definition
 
enEnglish
Ribosomes definition: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
ribosome definition: class of multicomponent structures found in all cells, in mitochondria, and chloroplasts with roles both in the genetic translation of transcripts and in the manufacture and secretion of the proteins.
ribosome definition: An intracellular organelle, about 200 A in diameter, consisting of RNA and protein. It is the site of protein biosynthesis resulting from translation of messenger RNA (mRNA). It consists of two subunits, one large and one small, each containing only protein and RNA. Both the ribosome and its subunits are characterized by their sedimentation coefficients, expressed in Svedberg units (symbol: S). Hence, the prokaryotic ribosome (70S) comprises a large (50S) subunit and a small (30S) subunit, while the eukaryotic ribosome (80S) comprises a large (60S) subunit and a small (40S) subunit. Two sites on the ribosomal large subunit are involved in translation, namely the aminoacyl site (A site) and peptidyl site (P site). Ribosomes from prokaryotes, eukaryotes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts have characteristically distinct ribosomal proteins. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
Ribosome definition: A granule of ribonucleoprotein, 120 to 150 A in diameter, is the site of protein synthesis from aminoacyl-tRNAs as directed by mRNAs.
Ribosome definition: Ribosomes are small organelles composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 80 some different proteins. rRNA is synthesized in the nucleolus and the ribosomal subunits are assembled there from rRNA and imported cytoplasmic made proteins. Once assembled, the subunits pass through the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm where they take part in protein synthesis. Some ribosomes are free in the cytoplasm and can be recruited to a polyribosomal structure when a messenger RNA (mRNA) strand is to be translated into a cytoplasmic protein. Other ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum where the protein is formed within the interior to the endoplasmic reticulum. These proteins are destined for secretion, storage or incorporation into membranes.
Ribosome Inactivating Proteins definition: N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.
ribosome biogenesis definition: The process of the formation of the constituents of the ribosome subunits, their assembly, and their transport to the sites of protein synthesis. [GOC:ma]
ribosome assembly definition: The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of the mature ribosome and of its subunits. [GOC:ma]
mature ribosome assembly definition: The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of the large and small ribosomal subunits into a functional ribosome. [GOC:ma]
ribosome export from nucleus definition: The directed movement of a ribosome from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. [GOC:ai]
29 further definitions >>
ltLithuanian
ribosoma definition: [1] Ribosom
 
frFrench
ribosome definition: Molécule synthétisant des protéines à partir de l'ARN messsager.
 
Publications
 

Movement in ribosome translocation

Christopher S Fraser et al.

Journal of Biology , 2005

The binding of berenil to Escherichia coli ribosome.

S Sinharay et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 01 Nov 1977

The origin and evolution of the ribosome

Temple F Smith et al.

Biology Direct , 22 Apr 2008

Three-dimensional structure of the yeast ribosome.

A Verschoor et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 15 Jan 1998

Role of the 5.8S rRNA in ribosome translocation.

S Abou Elela et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 01 May 1997

A novel GTPase activated by the small subunit of ribosome

Hyouta Himeno et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 2004

Evolution of the holozoan ribosome biogenesis regulon

Seth J Brown et al.

BMC Genomics , 24 Sep 2008

Structure of the Chloroplast Ribosome: Novel Domains for Translation Regulation

Andrea L Manuell et al.

PLoS Biology , 01 Aug 2007

Revealing unique properties of the ribosome using a network based analysis

Hilda David-Eden et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 01 Aug 2008

IRESdb: the Internal Ribosome Entry Site database

Sophie Bonnal et al.

Nucleic Acids Research , 01 Jan 2003

670 further publications >>