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Synapses definition: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
synapse definition: specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell; presynaptic terminals release a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell; the target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell; do not confuse with the immunological synapse, see cross reference for that concept.
synapse definition: The junction between a nerve fiber of one neuron and another neuron or muscle fiber or glial cell; the site of interneuronal communication. As the nerve fiber approaches the synapse it enlarges into a specialized structure, the presynaptic nerve ending, which contains mitochondria and synaptic vesicles. At the tip of the nerve ending is the presynaptic membrane; facing it, and separated from it by a minute cleft (the synaptic cleft) is a specialized area of membrane on the receiving cell, known as the postsynaptic membrane. In response to the arrival of nerve impulses, the presynaptic nerve ending secretes molecules of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These diffuse across the cleft and transmit the signal to the postsynaptic membrane. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
Synapse definition: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate through direct electrical connections which are sometimes called electrical synapses.
immunological synapse definition: An area of close contact between a lymphocyte (T-, B-, or natural killer cell) and a target cell formed through the clustering of particular signaling and adhesion molecules and their associated membrane rafts on both the lymphocyte and the target cell and facilitating activation of the lymphocyte, transfer of membrane from the target cell to the lymphocyte, and in some situations killing of the target cell through release of secretory granules and/or death-pathway ligand-receptor interaction. [GOC:mgi_curators, PMID:11244041, PMID:11376300]
Immunological Synapses definition: The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.
Electrical Synapses definition: Specialized junctions between NEURONS which connect the cytoplasm of one neuron to another allowing direct passage of an ion current.
Electrical Synapse definition: A synapse in which electrical connection is made directly through the cytoplasm, via gap junctions.
 
Publications
 

Optimal Learning Rules for Discrete Synapses

Adam B. Barrett et al.

PLoS Computational Biology , 01 Nov 2008

Inhibition Potentiates the Synchronizing Action of Electrical Synapses

Benjamin Pfeuty et al.

Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience , 02 Nov 2007

Geometrically Repatterned Immunological Synapses Uncover Formation Mechanisms

Marc Thilo Figge et al.

PLoS Computational Biology , 01 Nov 2006

Exosomal transfer of proteins and RNAs at synapses in the nervous system

Neil R Smalheiser

Biology Direct , 30 Nov 2007

Recruitment of Activation Receptors at Inhibitory NK Cell Immune Synapses

Nicolas Schleinitz et al.

PLoS ONE , 26 Sep 2008

GABA A Receptor Dynamics and Constructing GABAergic Synapses

Verena Tretter et al.

Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience , 30 May 2008

Synapsin- and Actin-Dependent Frequency Enhancement in Mouse Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses

Simen G. Owe et al.

Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY) , 01 Mar 2009

Excitatory and Feed-Forward Inhibitory Hippocampal Synapses Work Synergistically as an Adaptive Filter of Natural Spike Trains

Vitaly A Klyachko et al.

PLoS Biology , 01 Jul 2006

Dynamic remodelling of synapses can occur in the absence of the parent cell body

Natalia L Bettini et al.

BMC Neuroscience , 26 Sep 2007

Long Memory Lifetimes Require Complex Synapses and Limited Sparseness

Daniel D. Ben Dayan Rubin et al.

Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience , 30 Nov 2007

185 further publications >>